Gmos Decoded

Gmos Decoded[PDF] ✓ Gmos Decoded By Sheldon Krimsky – Tbjewellers.co.uk The debate over genetically modified organisms health and safety concerns environmental impact and scientific opinionsSince they were introduced to the market in the late 1990s GMOs genetically modifi The debate over genetically modified organisms health and safety concerns environmental impact and scientific opinionsSince they were introduced to the market in the late s GMOs genetically modified organisms including genetically modified crops have been subject to a barrage of criticism Agriculture has welcomed this new technology but public opposition has been loud and scientific opinion mixed In Gmos Decoded Sheldon Krimsky examines the controversies over GMOs health and safety concerns environmental issues the implications for world hunger and the scientific consensus or lack of one He explores the viewpoints of a range of GMO skeptics from public advocacy groups and nongovernmental organizations to scientists with differing views on risk and environmental impactKrimsky explains the differences between traditional plant breeding and molecular breeding through genetic engineering GE; describes early GMO products including the infamous Flavr Savr tomato; and discusses herbicide disease and insect resistant GE plants He considers the different American and European approaches to risk assessment dueling scientific interpretations of plant genetics and the controversy over labeling GMO products He analyzes a key report from the National Academies of Sciences on GMO health effects and considers the controversy over biofortified rice Golden Rice which some saw as a humanitarian project and others as an exercise in public relations Do GMO crops hold promise or peril By offering an accessible review of the risks and benefits of GMO crops and a guide to the controversies over them Krimsky helps readers judge for themselves.

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Gmos Decoded eBook ´ Hardcover
  • Hardcover
  • 216 pages
  • Gmos Decoded
  • Sheldon Krimsky
  • English
  • 08 March 2014
  • 9780262039192

10 thoughts on “Gmos Decoded

  1. says:

    The word Skeptic is misused The right word is primitivist And although the discourse itself has changed to integrate the New Age scientism it is the same desperate attempt to rationalize a hysterical fear of unknown The only use for this book would be to give a speculative glimpse into the minds of the illiterate peasants of Europe dying of hunger yet refusing the potato Centuries later the potato is fine but beware of the new GMO potatoDon't get me wrong the fear is legitimate The same way cats on YouTube get scared of a cucumber Krimsky has a right to wet the bed while waiting to be eaten by the GMO monster hiding under the bed The problem is the ignorant with pitchforks petitioning the local dignitary for a new GMO czar to exorcise the evil genes out of the peaceful plants

  2. says:

    A lot to process from this book Here are some of the most memorable excerptsThe evidence on the impact of HT seeds on soybean corn and cotton yields is mixedseveral researchers found no significant difference between the yields of adopters and nonadopters of HT; some found that HT adopters had higher yields while others found that adopters had lower yields Yields have a lot to do with multiple factorsStudies have shown that for HR cotton and soy herbicide use measured in lbs per acre declined slightly in the first years and then increased The USDA data suggest otherwise Herbicide use on corn by HT adopters increased from around 15 lbs per planted acre in both 2001 and 2005 to than 20 lbs per planted acre in 2010 whereas herbicide use by nonadopters did not change much HR crop technology has led to a 239 million kg increase in herbicide use across the three major GE HR crops compared to what herbicide use would likely have been in the absence of HR crops In the US it's estimated that plants are subjected to over 50000 different pathogens fungi viruses bacteria and nematodes Any given agricultural region may be faced with between ten and fifteen serious plant diseases From 1988 to 1990 there was a loss of 300 billion for eight major crops from all sources and about a third of this loss was due to pathogens Even with the extensive application of pesticides the estimated reductions in the farm gate value of selected vegetable crops in the US caused by diseases range from 8 to 23% by insects 4 to 21% and by weeds 8 to 13% The average losses caused by diseases insects and weeds in Canada are 155 125 and 105% respectively When a virus derived transgene is inserted to create a GMO it can have amino acid seuences that can cause new allergens or cause enhancement of intrinsic allergens Although this is a hypothetical risk The researchers conclude that GM plants that are grown in the same soil for than three months could change the rhizospheric microbial metabolism; cause negative effects on soil uality structure and function; and affect enzyme synthesis and activity as well as soil processes such as decomposition and mineralization of litter It has been estimated that about 67000 pest species are capable of damaging crops and that about 9000 of those species consist of insects and mites Globally crop losses are at around 37% of what is planted and about 13% of those losses is attributed to insects The toxicity of Bt is receptor mediated This means that for any organism to be affected by the Bt toxin the way it is designed to be used against insects it must have specific receptor sites in the insect's gut to which the protein can bind It is generally understood that humans and the majority of beneficial insects do not have the Cry toxin receptor sites Although humans and other animals may not have the receptor sites of Lepidoptera that does not preclude other means through which Cry toxins may affect them Any single protein may interact in mnay pathways not just one For example a Cry protein could potentially induce allergenicity in mammals but not have this effect in insects The majority of the laboratory studies that were performed to test the infectivity and toxicity of Bt commercial products have indicated that these products are safe Yet such studies are not enough proof that these products are innocuous to mammalian cells or vertebrate organisms The overuse of Bt is likely to undercut its selective use in organic farms The genome in which the foreign gene is placed acts like an ecosystem than a Lego system That means that genes interact with one another If a gene is introduced into a plant genome some other gene or genes already in the host plant could be affected That preexisting gene might code for a protein that is a nutrient a toxin or an enzyme or it might perform a regulatory function David Schubert a geneticist and professor at the Salk Institute cites 3 important conditions underlying the movement of genes across organisms The introduction of the same gene into two different types of cells can produce two very different protein molecules The introduction of any gene whether from a different or the same species usually can change overall gene expression and therefor the phenotype of the recipient cell Enzymatic pathways that are introduced to synthesize small molecules such as vitamins could interact with endogenous pathways to produce novel molecules This is particularly relevant to creating transgenic nutritional changes in plantsInnate was designed with lower amounts of the amino acid asparagine which turns into acrylamide during frying The panel's overall assessment of GMO yields is consistent with the scientific studies that show that GMO yield increases were idiosyncratic circumstantial and not systematic Regarding the 2016 National Academies Study a report found that 6 out of the 20 panel members had financial interests in GE crops including patents and corporate research grants There is no clear consensus that GMOs are inherently better or worse than non GMO varieties in terms of yield You must consider each region practice climate pest density pesticide use farm practice etc It is not feasible to ask whether a particular system industry or technology is 'sustainable' or 'unsustainable' but useful to consider whether it is associated with a tendency towards or away from sustainability

  3. says:

    35I went into this book with the understanding that the health effects of GMOs are not well understood and research is needed That GMOs are a complex issue and really research is needed to understand all the ramifications That even with the biological factors aside they create litigation problems for farmers who don’t want to grow GMOs but are sued because someone else’s crop drifted and contaminated theirs I finished the book with the same understanding Not that this book wasn’t interesting—I learned about the history of GMOs and the exact scientific process and arguments foragainst their safety But everything is so theoretical for anyone troubled by today’s issues and wanting answers now it does not deliver

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